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Wait a minute! Can the "Standard" prepared now really become the Analytical Standard?

ICP analyzers can analyze multiple elements simultaneously in a single measurement. Therefore, they are useful for controlling trace elements in foods and drugs in addition to electronic materials and water quality. FUJIFILM Wako offers specifications of reagents for various measuring methods, such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and ICP optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In addition to single element standard solutions, multi-element mixture standard solutions suitable for various requirements are also available.

Furthermore, FUJIFILM Wako has a search system that allows you to easily search for these.

We believe that many researchers are preparing standard solutions by mixing elements to be measured with commercially available single element or multi-element mixture standard solutions.

Wait a minute! Can the "Standard" prepared now really become the Analytical Standard?

Different factors described below may cause element concentration to shift during preparation.

Contamination by water and acids used for dilution : Use of a reagent without element guarantee
Contamination caused by laboratory instruments : Elution of a resin stabilizer contained in a container and elution of glass components
Errors during experimental work : Error in dilution calculation, mix-up of reagents, error in reagent injection volume
Contamination caused by experimental environment : Contamination risk in a clean draft
Decreased concentration due to precipitation : Precipitation due to acidity or alkalinity, compatibility of element ions with specific acids
Interfering ions : Isobaric ions, adduct ions, and polyatomic ion interference, etc.

As shown above, there are many precautions when preparing standard solutions of multiple elements, and it is generally said that combinations in Table 1 are not compatible with regard to a decrease in element concentration due to precipitation. One of famous examples is precipitation observed when silver standard solutions are mixed with the other hydrochloric acid-based solutions.

Table 1. List of precipitation in solution by combination of ions
NH4+ K+ Ca2+ Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Ni2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ Cu2+ Hg2+ Hg22+ Ag+
NO3- + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
SO42- + + - + + + + + + + - + (+)
Cl- + + + + + + + + + + + - + + - -
CO32- + + - + - - - - - -
S2- Acidic + + + + + + + + + - - - - -
Neutral to basic + + + + + - - - - - - - - -
OH- + + (+) + (-) - - - - - - - - - -

+: No formation of a precipitate, -: Formation of a precipitate

  • The above list is not applicable depending on the element concentration in a container.
Main element precipitation and color
Halides CaF2(white), AgCl(white), PbCl2(white), AgBr(light yellow), AgI(yellow)
Sulfate CaSO4(white), SrSO4(white), BaSO4(white), PbSO4(white)
Carbonate CaCO3(white), MgCO3(white), BaCO3(white)
Hydroxide Al(OH)3(white), Fe(OH)2(light green), Fe(OH)3(red brown), Cu(OH)2(bluish white), Cr(OH)3(regrayish green), Ni(OH)2(green)
Oxide Al2O3(white), ZnO(white), MnO2(black), Ag2O(dark brown), FeO(black), Fe2O3(red brown), Fe3O4(black), CuO(black), Cu2O(red brown)
Chromate BaCrO4(yellow), PbCrO4(yellow), Ag2CrO4(red brown)
Sulfide CuS(black), Ag2O(black), PbS(black), ZnS(white), MnS(pink), SnS(brown), CdS(yellow)

FUJIFILM Wako has many know-how on the liquidity of standard solutions as well as solid technology cultivated as a reference material producer (ISO 17034) and delivers highly reliable standard solutions in element concentration.

Reference: Comparison List of Compositions for 3 Specifications of Element Standard Solution
for AAS analysis JCSS for ICP analysis
Code No. Product name Composition Code No. Product name Composition Code No. Product name Composition
Ag 191-18691 Silver Standard Solution AgNO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3 195-18591 Silver Standard Solution AgNO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Al 016-15471 Aluminium Standard Solution Al(NO3)3 in 0.5 mol/L HNO3 016-27701 Aluminium Standard Solution Al(NO3)3・9H2O 5 w/w% HNO3
As 013-15481 Arsenic Standard Solution As2NO3 and NaOH in water pH5.0 with HCl 013-27571 Arsenic Standard Solution As2O3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Au 076-06741 Gold Standard Solution HAuO4 in 1 mol/L HCl 074-06661 Gold Standard Solution HAuO4・4H2O in 5 w/w% HCl
B 025-16581 Boron Standard Solution H3BO3 in water 024-19231 Boron Standard Solution H3BO3 in H2O
Ba 027-15321 Barium Standard Solution BaCO3 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 027-19221 Barium Standard Solution BaCO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Be 024-19351 Beryllium Standard Solution BeSO4 in 0.03 mol/L HNO3 021-19241 Beryllium Standard Solution Be4(CH3COO)6O in 5 w/w% HNO3
Bi 021-12661 Bismuth Standard Solution Bi(NO3)3 in 0.5 mol/L HNO3 028-19251 Bismuth Standard Solution Bi(NO3)3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ca 039-16161 Calcium Standard Solution CaCO3 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 035-25431 Calcium Standard Solution CaCO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Cd 036-16171 Cadmium Standard Solution Cd(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 032-25321 Cadmium Standard Solution Cd in 0.5 w/w% HNO3
Ce 039-11661 Cerium Standard Solution Ce(NO3)2 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Co 033-16181 Cobalt Standard Solution Co(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 039-25331 Cobalt Standard Solution Co in 5 w/w% HNO3
Cr 030-16191 Chromium Standard Solution K2Cr2O7 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 039-25451 Chromium Standard Solution CrO3 5 w/w% HNO3
Cs 030-21341 Cesium Standard Solution CsCl in water 035-25311 Cesium Standard Solution CsNO3 in H2O
Cu 033-16201 Copper Standard Solution Cu(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 036-25341 Copper Standard Solution Cu in 5 w/w% HNO3
Dy 041-34501 Dysprosium Standard Solution Dy(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Er 055-09271 Erbium Standard Solution Er(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Eu 052-09281 Europium Standard Solution Eu(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Fe 094-03841 Iron Standard Solution Cu(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 096-07321 Iron Standard Solution Fe in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ga 070-05781 Gallium Standard Solution Ga in 0.5 mol/L HNO3 071-06671 Gallium Standard Solution Ga in 5 w/w% HNO3
Gd 072-06721 Gadolinium Standard Solution Gd(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3 070-06761 Gadolinium Standard Solution Gd2O3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ge 079-06731 Germanium Standard Solution GeO2 in H2O 078-06681 Germanium Standard Solution GeO2 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Hg 138-13661 Mercury Standard Solution HgO2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 139-18831 Mercury Standard Solution Hg in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ho 087-10501 Holmium Standard Solution Ho(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
In 092-05841 Indium Standard Solution In in 0.5 mol/L HNO3 099-07311 Indium Standard Solution In in 5 w/w% HNO3
K 165-17471 Potassium Standard Solution KCl in Water 162-28351 Potassium Standard Solution KNO3 in H2O
La 129-06821 Lanthanum Standard Solution La(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Li 129-05221 Lithium Standard Solution Li2CO3 in 0.2 mol/L HNO3 127-06741 Lithium Standard Solution LiNO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Lu 126-06831 Lutetium Standard Solution Lu(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Mg 136-12121 Magnesium Standard Solution Mg(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 136-18841 Magnesium Standard Solution MgO in 5 w/w% HNO3
Mn 133-12131 Manganese Standard Solution Mn(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 130-18861 Manganese Standard Solution Mn in 5 w/w% HNO3
Mo 130-14961 Molybdenum Standard Solution Mo in 0.4 mol/L HCl・0.2 mol/L HNO3
Na 199-10831 Sodium Standard Solution NaCl in Water 198-18581 Sodium Standard Solution NaNO3 in H2O
Nb 145-09821 Niobium Standard Solution Nb in 1 mol/L HF
Nd 148-09811 Neodymium Standard Solution Nd(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Ni 147-06461 Nickel Standard Solution Ni(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 141-09781 Nickel Standard Solution NiO in 5 w/w% HNO3
P 168-28331 Phosphorus Standard Solution H3PO4 in H2O
Pb 124-04291 Lead Standard Solution Pb(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 124-06751 Lead Standard Solution Pb(NO3)2 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Pd 160-28531 Palladium Standard Solution PdCl2 in 1 mol/L HCl 160-28411 Palladium Standard Solution Pd in 5 w/w% HNO3 etc
Pt 167-28541 Platinum Standard Solution H2PtCl6 in 1 mol/L HCl 165-28341 Platinum Standard Solution H2O6Pt・6H2O in 5 w/w% HCl
Pr 164-28551 Praseodymium Standard Solution Pr(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Rb 188-01951 Rubidium Standard Solution RbCl in Water 188-03391 Rubidium Standard Solution RbNO3 in H2O
Rh 185-03421 Rhodium Standard Solution Rh(NO3)3 in 2 mol/L HNO3
S 198-18601 Sulfur Standard Solution H2SO4 in H2O
Sb 010-15491 Antimony Standard Solution SbC3in 3 mol/L HCl 010-27581 Antimony Standard Solution Sb2O3 in 5 w/w% HNO3 etc.
Sc 191-18711 Scandium Standard Solution Sc(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Se 192-13861 Selenium Standard Solution Se in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 196-18641 Selenium Standard Solution SeO2 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Si 198-18721 Silicon Standard Solution Na2SiO3 in 0.2 mol/L Na2CO3 197-18671 Silicon Standard Solution SiO2 in 0.2 w/w% HF
Sm 194-18701 Samarium Standard Solution Sm(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Sn 202-16311 Tin Standard Solution Sn in 3 mol/L HCl 209-20731 Tin Standard Solution SnCl4 in 5 w/w% HCl
Sr 199-13871 Strontium Standard Solution SrCO3 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 199-18631 Strontium Standard Solution SrCO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ta 204-20921 Tantalum Standard Solution Ta in 2% HNO3-0.5% HF
Tb 201-20931 Terbium Standard Solution Tb(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Te 209-17921 Tellurium Standard Solution Te in 1 mol/L HCl 207-20771 Tellurium Standard Solution H6TeO6 in 5 w/w% HNO3
Ti 208-20941 Titanium Standard Solution Ti(SO4)2 in 1 mol/L H2SO4 200-21001 Titanium Standard Solution Ti in 16 w/w% HCl
Tl 205-16301 Thallium Standard Solution TlNO3 in 1 mol/L HNO3 206-20741 Thallium Standard Solution TlNO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3
V 221-01851 Vanadium Standard Solution V in 0.2 mol/L HCl-0.5mol/l HNO3 223-02411 Vanadium Standard Solution NH4VO3 in 5 w/w% HNO3 etc.
W 205-20951 Tungsten Standard Solution Na2WO4 in H2O
Y 258-00661 Yttrium Standard Solution Y(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Yb 251-00651 Ytterbium Standard Solution Yn(NO3)3 in 1 mol/L HNO3
Zn 264-01421 Zinc Standard Solution Zn(NO3)2 in 0.1 mol/L HNO3 260-02241 Zinc Standard Solution ZnO in 5 w/w% HNO3
Zr 264-02261 Zirconium Standard Solution ZrO(NO3)2 in 1 mol/L HNO3

●Liquid color coding

Acid Red background
Neutral White background
Alkali Blue background

Nitric acid: Black characters
Sulfuric acid: Blue characters
Hydrochloric acid: Green characters

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