Pathology Research

In research in pathology, specimens of cells and tissues are observed to reveal the development and progression of a disease. Various methods have been established to visualize target tissues, cells, and molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) for observation, including staining with dyes, immunostaining, and in situ hybridization. Fujifilm Wako offers a wide line-up of reagents necessary for various processes of pathological research.

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Processes from Specimen Preparation to Microscopic Observation

Sample processing varies depending on the cells or tissues to be observed and the method of staining. The general processes from paraffin section preparation to observation by light microscope involve the following steps:

  • 1. Dissection
    Target tissue is excised from the animal. Perfusion fixation may be necessary depending on the tissue to be observed.
  • 2. Fixation
    Molecular (mainly proteins) in the tissue are immobilized to keep the condition of the specimen as close to that of the living tissue as possible for an extended period of time.

    Available reagents: Fixatives
  • 3. Decalcification and defatting (depending on the sample)
    Hard tissues such as bone are decalcified, and lipid-rich tissues such as brain, skin, or adipose tissue are defatted.

    Available reagents: Tissue Decalcifying Solutions
  • 4. Dehydration
    For paraffin embedding, the water in the tissue is removed with alcohol, and then the alcohol is replaced with a clearing agent miscible with paraffin.

    Available reagents: Clearing Agents
  • 5. Embedding
    Soft tissues are difficult to cut into thin sections as they are. Embedding tissues in paraffin or other material makes the tissue sufficiently hard.

    Available reagents: Tissue Embedding Agents
  • 6. Sectioning
    Embedded specimens are cut into thin sections for staining and observation.
  • 7. Staining
    Thin sections are stained with dyes or labeled with antibodies and probes. Pretreatment such as deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and blocking may be performed. It is also possible to decolorize stained specimens with a decolorizing reagent and apply another stain.

    Available reagents: Antigen Retrieval Reagents / Tissue Decolorizing Reagents
  • 8. Mounting
    A mounting agent is added to the glass slides to fix and preserve specimens on the slides for long-term storage. Dehydration may be performed when a solvent-based mounting medium is used.
  • 9. Observation
    Prepared specimens are observed under a microscope.


  1. Yamada, K.: “Histochemistry”, Nankodo, Japan, (1987). (Japanese)
  2. Handbook for Staining and Bioimaging Experiments 5th ed.” ed. by Takata, K., Saito, N. and Kawakami, H., Yodosha, Japan, (2012). (Japanese)
  3. Okubo, K.: “Master of cell and tissue staining”, Yodosha, Japan, (2018). (Japanese)

For research use or further manufacturing use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Product content may differ from the actual image due to minor specification changes etc.

If the revision of product standards and packaging standards has been made, there is a case where the actual product specifications and images are different.


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