Insulin

Insulin is a protein hormone secreted from B cells of islet of Langerhans in the pancreas with a molecular weight of about 5,800 and pI 5.4. It is consisted of 2 chains, A and B. It has 3 disulfide bonds formed between A6 and A11, A7 and B7, and A20 and B19. Exists as a dimer molecule in acidic to neutral water solution without Zn ion, and as a hexamer including two Zn ions in neutral solution if Zn ions are present.
Main targets of insulin are liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Insulin actions in these targets are as follows. In the liver, it promotes glycogenesis, protein synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, carbohydrate utilization, and inhibition of gluconeogenesis. In the muscle, it promotes membrane permeability of carbohydrates, amino acids and K ion, glycogenesis, protein synthesis, while inhibits protein degradation. In the adipose tissue, it promotes membrane permeability of glucose and fatty acid synthesis.

FUJIFILM Wako Shibayagi Corporation offers a variety of kits for the measurement of insulin for your purposes. Select a kit that fits your researches.

Selection Guide

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Selection of Kits

  • U type, U-E type: Highly sensitive. Suitable for the measurement of low concentrations of insulin (e.g., fasting insulin level).
  • S type: Enables insulin-specific measurement by suppressing cross-reactivity with proinsulin.
  • H type: Suitable for the measurement of high concentrations of insulin. Use this product for the measurement of highly concentrated samples.
  • RTU type: Ready-to-use kits available in 6 concentrations of standards. Diluted antibody and POD-avidin solutions are included.
  • T type: A normal type, standard insulin measurement kit.
Type U type U-E type S type RTU type T type H type Concentration
(pg/mL)
Species Mouse Rat Mouse Rat Mouse Rat Mouse Rat Mouse Rat
Test Time 3 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 2 hrs 50 mins 2 hrs 50 mins 2 hrs 50 mins 3 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs
Dynamic Range 200,000
x x 100,000
x x 50,000
x x 36,000
x x 31,300
x x x x 12,000
x x x x x x x 10,000
x x x x x x x x 5,000
x x x x x x x x 3,130
x x x x x x x x 3,000
x x x x x x x x x x 2,500
x x x x x x x x x x 2,000
x x x x x x x x x x 1,500
x x x x x x x x x x 1,000
x x x x x x x x x x 780
x x x x x x x x x x 500
x x x x x x x x 470
x x x x x x x x 313
x x x x x x x x 288
x x x x x x x x 188
x x x x x x x x 156
x x x x x x 100
x x x 94.3
x x x 78
x x 50
x x 39
31.3
30
25
16

LBIS Insulin Assay Kits

Specificity for insulin

Ordinary insulin assay kits: All ELISA kits except for S type.

Ordinary assay kits show the affinity to both insulin and proinsulin. Normally, in circulating blood, both proinsulin and processed insulin are secreted with minor ratio of proinsulin to insulin, and secretion of proinsulin is in parallel with insulin. So, in usual studies, it is enough to measure both of them by using ordinary assay kit.

Insulin-specific assay kit: S type (at present for rat insulin)

This type of kit shows a very low cross-reactivity to proinsulin (see data in specificity section), and practically can measure only insulin in the presence of proinsulin. This type of kit is useful when levels of proinsulin change owing physiological conditions. From the difference of assay values between ordinary and specific assay kits we can estimate proinsulin secretion.

From assay sensitivity

Kits of ordinary sensitivity: TMB

These types of kits are for measurement of insulin in normal state animals. In any species, a good standard curve is obtained in a range of 0.156 to 10ng/ml.

Ultra-sensitive assay kits: U type, U-E type

For rat and mouse, we are providing ultra-sensitive assay kits, U type. This type of kit is improved to be able to measure insulin levels in fasted animals with an excellent precision. The assay ranges are 25-1,500 pg/ml for rat, and 39-2,500 pg/ml for mouse. Because rat U type needs an overnight incubation, we improved the incubation period, and prepared U-E type the assay range of which is 39-2,500 pg/ml. The highly specific assay kit of S type also attained higher sensitivity than ordinary TMB the assay range of which is 100 to 10,000 pg/m.

Kit for insulin-related substance: rat and mouse C-peptide ELISA kits

We provide assay kits for C-peptide that has closely related to insulin. Amino acid sequences of C-peptides are to some extent different between rat and mouse. C-peptide is secreted with insulin after processing of proinsulin to insulin and C-peptide. C-peptide has a longer biological half-life than insulin. So, C-peptide is measured in observation of biosynthesis and secretory functions for insulin. C-peptide is also found in urine in considerably high concentration, and the level is parallel to that in plasma, so, can be applied to urinary samples.
Measurement of C-peptide is also useful in estimation of insulin secretion to culture medium of e.g. isolated islets more than measurement of insulin itself, because very often insulin is added to a culture medium to make the measurement of insulin secreted to the medium by cultured cells. As C-peptide is secreted into the medium in equi-molar base, we can estimate insulin secretion by measuring C-peptide. Our C-peptide kit recognizes both C-peptide 1 and 2, the total amount of C-peptide is measured by the kit.

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Insulin ELISA

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