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Silica Gel Packing Agent (Unmodified)

Silica gel has a strong physical strength and is the most widely used as a column packing agent for analysis and purification in chromatographies such as HPLC, medium and low pressure chromatography, and open column chromatography.

In general, there are unmodified silica gel and chemically modified silica gel that has been changed their functions by binding of various functional groups (C18, NH2 etc.) to the silanol groups on the surface of silica gel.

FUJIFILM Wako provides lineups of crushed silica gel (Wakogel® series) and spherical silica gel (Wakosil® series) as unmodified silica gel. Each series has product lineups with various particle size available for open columns to medium/low pressure chromatography, allowing a smooth scale up from research use to manufacturing process.

How to Select Silica Gel

1. Shape

In general, spherical silica gel is expected to improve resolution and reproducibility compared with crushed silica gel (reasonable price).
FUJIFILM Wako employs crushed silica gel for Wakogel® series and spherical silica gel for Wakosil® series.

2. Chemical Modification

Chemical modification is to bind various functional groups to silanol groups on the surface of silica gel to change silica gel functions. C18 modified silica gel (ODS) is an octadecyl group-bound silica gel and is suitable for reverse-phase chromatography. NH2 modified silica gel is an aminopropyl group-bound silica gel and is suitable for normal-phase, hydrophilic interaction, and ion exchange chromatography. Unmodified silica gel is mainly used for normal-phase chromatography.

3. Particle Size

The larger the particle size, the more suitable for open columns, and the smaller the particle size, the more suitable for flash chromatography or HPLC.

4. Pore Size and Specific Surface Area

The smaller the pore size, the larger the specific surface area of silica gel and the higher resolution of small molecules. On the other hand, the larger the pore size, the higher the resolution of high molecules such as proteins. Suitable pore size must be selected so that sample molecules retain the silica gels well.

Flow Chart for Selection of Silica Gel

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Particle Size Distribution Table

The smaller the particle size, the higher the resolution. However, the analysis time becomes longer due to slow flow rate. On the other hand, the larger the particle size, the flow speed becomes faster, and the behavior is suitable for open columns.

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List of Physical Properties for each Silica Gel Grade

Silica gel for general purpose (unmodified)
Product Name Shape Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use Features
Wakosil® 60 series
Wakosil® 60, 38~63 μm Spherical 38~63 μm 6 nm - 450~550 m2/g 6.2~7.5 Open column, low pressure,
flash chromatography
This series has a smaller pore size than Wakogel® C series. Therefore, it is suitable for large-scale fractionation and purification owing to its high retention performance.
Because of spherical silica gel, it is expected to improve resolution and reproducibility compared with crushed types.
Product name: 60 = pore size
Shape: Totally porous spherical silica gel with a pore size of 6 nm
Use: Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakosil® 60, 64 µm~210 μm 64~210 μm - Open column
Wakogel® 60N series
Wakogel®60N, 38 ~100 µm Crushed 38~100 µm 6 nm 0.85 mL/g 550 m2/g 6.5~7.5 Open column, low pressure,
flash chromatography
This series has a smaller pore size than Wakogel® C series.
Therefore, it is suitable for large-scale fractionation and purification owing to its high retention performance.
Product name: 60 = pore size
Shape: Crushed silica gel with a pore size of 6 nm
Use : Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel®60N, 63 ~212 µm 63~212 µm Open column
Wakogel®60N, 150 ~425 µm 150~425 µm Open column
Wakogel®C series
Wakogel®C-100 Crushed 150~425 µm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 5.5~7.0 Open column This series is the most common silica gel of FUJIFILM Wako.
Product name: The number after C- = mesh size which silica gel passes
Shape: Totally porous spherical silica gel
Use: Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel®C-200 75~150 µm 5.5~7.0 Open column
Wakogel®C-300 45~75 µm 5.5~7.5 Open column, low pressure,
flash chromatography
Wakogel®C series E (economy) type
Wakogel®C-200E Crushed 75~150 µm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 5.5~7.5 Open column This series has a reasonable price by partially changing the manufacturing process, even though it has the same specifications, including particle size, as Wakogel® C series.
Product name: The number after C- = mesh size which silica gel passes
Shape: Totally porous spherical silica gel
Use: Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel®C-300E 45~75 µm Open column, low pressure,
flash chromatography
Wakogel®C series HG (high grade) type
Wakogel®C-300HG Crushed 40~60 µm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 6.0~7.5 Open column, low pressure,
flash chromatography
This series is high-grade silica gel with a smaller particle size and a sharp particle size distribution compared with Wakogel® C series.
Product name: The number after C- = mesh size which silica gel passes
Shape: Totally porous spherical silica gel
Use: Open column, medium and low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel®C-400HG 20~40 µm Medium and low pressure,
flash chromatography
Wakogel®C-500HG 5~20 µm 6.0~7.0 Medium and low pressure,
flash chromatography
Wakogel® FC
Wakogel®FC-40 Crushed 20~40 µm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g - Flash chromatography Silica gel specialized for flash chromatography with a smaller particle size and a sharp particle size distribution.
Product name: The number after FC- = particle size
Shape: Crushed silica gel
Use: Flash chromatography
Wakosil® HC-N
Wakosil®HC-N Spherical 35~63 µm 3 nm 0.6 mL/g 780 m2/g 6.5~7.5 Open column, medium pressure,
flash chromatography
This silica gel has larger specific surface area than that of Wakosil® C series.
Because of its high retention performance, it has large sample load capacity and high resolution.
Shape: Spherical silica gel
Use: Open column, medium pressure, flash chromatography.
For analysis of dioxins
Product Name Shape Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use Features
Wakogel® DX
Wakogel® DX Crushed 75~150 μm - - - - For analysis of dioxins Silica gel which is guaranteed a low concentration of dioxins by testing ''Suitability for dioxins determination".
Shape: Crushed silica gel
Use: For analysis of dioxins
For analysis and separation/purification of petrochemical products
Product Name Shape Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use Features
Wakogel® Q series
Wakogel®Q-12 Crushed 75~600 µm - - - 4.0~6.0 For analysis and separation/purification of petrochemical products Silica gel for analysis of petrochemical products specific to separation and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins.
Product name: The number after Q- = corresponding Davison's product grade
Shape: Crushed silica gel
Use: For analysis and separation/purification of petrochemical products
Wakogel®Q-22 max. 75 µm
Wakogel®Q-23 75~150 µm
Wakogel®Q-50 75~250 µm
Wakogel®Q-63 max. 45 µm
For analysis of PCB
Product Name Shape Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use Features
Wakogel® S-1
Wakogel®S-1 Crushed 63~425 µm - - - 4.5~6.5 For analysis of PCB Silica gel specific to separate PCBs and organochlorine pesticides.
Shape: Crushed silica gel Use: For analysis of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides

Wakosill® 60 Series

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Appearance

Wakosill® 60 series is a spherical silica gel with a pore size of 6 nm that is used for preparative and purification applications. This series has a smaller pore size than Wakogel® C series. Therefore, it is suitable for large-scale fractionation and purification owing to its high retention performance. This is spherical silica gel. Therefore, it is expected to improve resolution and reproducibility compared with crushed types (Wakogel® 60N).

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Specific Area pH Intended Use
Wakosil® 60, 38 µm63 μm Spherical 38~63 μm 6 nm 450~550 m2/g 6.2~7.5 Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakosil® 60, 64 µm210 μm 64~210 μm Open column

Wakosill® 60N Series

Wakogel® 60N series is crushed silica gel with a pore size of 6 nm. This series has a smaller pore size than Wakogel® C series. Therefore, it is suitable for large-scale fractionation and purification owing to its high retention performance. This series have 3 types of particle size, available from open column to low pressure and flash chromatography. In addition, Wakogel® 60N, 63 µm~212 µm has a larger retention than equivalent products from other companies, with the chromatographic band also being sharp. (See the examples of use below)

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use
Wakogel® 60N, 38 µm~100 μm Crushed 38~100 μm 6 nm 0.85 mL/g 550 m2/g 6.5~7.5 Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel® 60N, 63 µm~212 μm 63~212 μm Open column
Wakogel® 60N, 150 µm~425 μm 150~425 μm

Examples of Use

Separation of azobenzene and p-methoxyazobenzene

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Wakogel® 60N: Larger retention and better separation than equivalent products from other company
Wakogel® C-200: Suitable for preparative purification in a short time with rapid elution

  • Fractionation Condition

    Column φ15 mm x 300 mm (filled to a height of 150 mm: approx. 13 g)
    Eluent Toluene/n-Hexane = 2/1 (v/v)
    Detection UV 330 nm
    Sample ①Azobenzene 1 mg/mL ②p-Methoxyazobenzene 1 mg/mL
    Sample load 0.5 mL
  • HPLC Condition

    Column Wakopak® Wakosil® 5SIL-120 4.6 mm x 250 mm
    Eluent Toluene/n-Hexane = 1/1 (v/v)
    Injection vol. 10 μL
    Flow rate 1.0 mL/min. at 40℃
    Detection UV 330 nm

Procedure

  1. Fractions were collected under fractionation conditions.
  2. Each fraction was analyzed by HPLC, and the obtained peak values were traced to the elution volume under the fractionation conditions.

Wakogel® C Series

Wakogel® C Series

Wakogel® C series is totally porous crushed silica gel with a pore size of 7 nm and is the most common silica gel of FUJIFILM Wako’s products. This series have 3 types of particle size, available from open column to low pressure and flash chromatography.

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use
Wakogel® C-100 Crushed 150~425 μm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 5.5~7.0 Open column
Wakogel® C-200 75~150 μm 5.5~7.0
Wakogel® C-300 45~75 μm 5.5~7.5 Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography

Wakogel® C Series E (economy) Type

Wakogel® C series E type is silica gel that achieves a reasonable price by partially changing the manufacturing process, even though it has the same specifications, including particle size, as Wakogel® C series.

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use
Wakogel® C-200E Crushed 75~150 µm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 5.5~7.5 Open column
Wakogel® C-300E 45~75 μm Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography

Wakogel® C Series HG (high grade) Type

Wakogel® C series HG type is high-grade silica gel with a smaller particle size and a sharp particle size distribution compared with Wakogel® C series. In addition, it has the fine powder removed as much as possible by an increased classification precision, and it can be used at a higher flow rate than similar particle sizes products.

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area pH Intended Use
Wakogel® C-300HG Crushed 40~60 μm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g 6.0~7.5 Open column, low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel® C-400HG 20~40 μm Medium and low pressure, flash chromatography
Wakogel® C-500HG 5~20 μm 6.0~7.0 Medium and low pressure, flash chromatography

Separation and Purification of Saikosaponin Using Wakogel®

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HPLC chromatogram in each purification step

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Wakogel® FC Series

Wakogel® FC series is silica gel specialized for flash chromatography with a smaller particle size and a sharp particle size distribution.

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area Intended Use
Wakogel® FC-40 Crushed 20~40 μm 7 nm 0.8 mL/g 450 m2/g Flash chromatography

Wakosil® HC-N

Wakosil® HC-N has larger specific surface area than that of Wakosil® C series. Because of its high retention performance, it has large sample load capacity and high resolution.

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size Pore Size Pore Capacity Specific Area Loss on drying pH Intended Use
Wakosil® HC-N Spherical 35~63 μm 3 nm 0.6 mL/g 780 m2/g max. 15% 6.5~7.5 Open column, medium pressure, flash chromatography

Wakogel® Q Series

Wakogel® Q Series for analysis of petrochemical products specific to separation and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins. The number after Q- = corresponding Davison’s product grade.

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size pH Intended Use
Wakogel® Q-12 Crushed 75~600 μm 4.0~6.0 Silica gel increasing the adsorption capacity of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons in petrochemical and coal tar industries.
Wakogel® Q-22 75 μm or less Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins by type.
Wakogel® Q-23 75 ~150 μm Analysis of liquid saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Wakogel® Q-50 75~250 μm Analysis of liquid saturated hydrocarbons, olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons with the FIA (Flow Injection Analysis) method.
Wakogel® Q-63 45 μm or less Equivalent product to Davison Grade 63.

Wakogel® DX, Wakogel® S-1

Wakogel® DX is guaranteed a low concentration of dioxins by testing ‘‘Suitability for dioxins determination”.
Wakogel® S-1 specific to separate PCBs and organochlorine pesticides.

Physical Property Information

Product Name Shape Particle Size pH Intended Use
Wakogel® DX Crushed 75~150 μm - For analysis of dioxins
Wakogel® S-1 63~ 425 μm 4.5~6.5 For analysis of PCBs

Product List

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Wakogel® 60N

Wakogel® C Series

Wakogel® LP Series

Wakogel® FC Series

Wakogel® Q Series

Wakogel® DX

Wakogel® S-1

Product content may differ from the actual image due to minor specification changes etc.

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