Lithium Cation Endohedral Fullerene
Lithium endohedral fullerene is a novel nanomaterial displaying a very high ionic conductivity (unlike empty fullerene). From this conductivity, the material is likely to have wide applications dye-sensitized and organic solar cells.
FUJIFILM Wako markets products made by Idea International, which is the world's first company to succeed in mass production of Lithium endohedral fullerene (Li+@C60).
A new solution to highly efficient solar cells
Li+@C60 provides long lasting separation of electron charge. Li+@C60-sulphonated porphyrin supramolecular nanoclusters support increased photoelectricalchemical performance of photovoltaic cells. Photoelectrochemical solar cells composed of supramolecular nanoclusters of lithium encapsulated fullerene and zinc sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrin exhibit significant performance enhancement as compared with the reference system containing only a single component.
- Ohkubo, Y. Kawashima and S. Fukuzumi, "Strong supramolecular binding of Li+@C60 with sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins and long-lived photoinduced charge separation", Chem. Commun., 48, 4314-6 (2012)
- Ohkubo, Y. Kawashima, H. Sakai, T. Hasobe and S. Fukuzumi, "Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of composite photovoltaic cells of Lii+@C60- sulphonated porphyrin supramolecular nanoclusters ", Chem. Commun., 49, 4474-6 (2013)
Li+ ion is encapsulated inside C60 (Fullerene).
Li+@C60 reacts with various anions and forms salts (e.g. SbCl6- and PF6-), which are useful in switch and sensor applications. This property can be utilized for sensors and switches.
- Aoyagi, E. Nishibori, H. Sawa, K. Sugimoto, et al., "A layered ionic crystal of polar Li@C60 superatoms", Nature Chemistry, 2, 678-83 (2010).
- Aoyagi, Y. Sado, E. Nishibori, et al., "Rock-Salt-Type Crystal of Thermally Contracted C60 with Encapsulated Lithium Cation", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51, 3377-81 (2012).
Higher ion mobility in organic solvent
Li+@C60- is produced in the reaction above, and is electrically neutral. Because Li+@C60·PF6- shows higher mobility inside organic solvents than n-Bu4N+·PF6-, which is widely used as electrolyte, many electro-chemical applications of Li+@C60 are envisaged. In fact, Li+@C60·-, a radical anion, is selectively produced when Li+@C60-·PF6- is reduced.
- Ueno, K. Kokubo, Y. Nakamura, K. Ohikubo, et al., "Ionic conductivity of [Li+@C60](PF6-) in organic solvents and its electrochemical reduction to Lii+@C60·-", Chem. Commun., 49, 7376-8 (2013).
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