GC Derivatization Reagents

Gas chromatography uses derivatizing reagents to improve detection sensitivity when analytes are poorly volatile or less stable against heat.
FUJIFILM Wako provides Various GC derivatizing reagents.

Properties and Example

Gas Chromatography (GC) can analyze gases or vaporizable samples but cannot determine the poorly volatile compounds or unstable compounds that are decomposed by heat.
GC analysis can be performed by reacting with a derivatizing reagent to produce a derivative with good volatility and thermal stability. In addition, highly sensitive analysis can be performed by derivatization suitable for the detection method.
FUJIFILM Wako provides various derivatizing reagents. They can be used not only as derivatizing reagents but also for organic syntheses.

Abbr. chemical name Applicable functional group Reaction type
AIM N-acetylimidazole catecholamine acylation
BSA N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide hydroxy, carboxyl, amino, amide silylation (TMS)
BSTFA N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide hydroxy, carboxyl, amino, amide silylation (TMS)
CMTMS 1,3-bis(chloromethyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisilazane steroid silylation (DMS)
DMCS dimethylchlorosilane steroid silylation (DMS)
HFBI N-heptafluorobutyrylimidazole Catecholamine acylation
HMDS 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane alcohol, phenol, carboxyl, sugar silylation (TMS)
MBTFA N-methylbistrifluoroacetamide primary and secondary amine , hydroxy, thiol, sugar trifluoromethylation
MSTFA N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl Trifluoroacetamide steroid, catecholamine silylation (TMS)
TFAA trifluoroacetic Anhydride alcohol, amine trifluoromethylation
TFAI N-trifluoroacetylimidazole catecholamine acylation
TMCS chlorotrimethylsilane alcohol, phenol, carboxyl, sugar silylation (TMS)
TMSA N-trimethylsilylacetamide sugar silylation (TMS)
TMSDEA N-(trimethylsilyl)diethylamine amino acid silylation (TMS)
TMSI N-trimethylsilylimidazole alcohol, phenol, carboxyl acid, steroid, hormone, nucleic acid silylation (TMS)

Trimethyl silylation

Trimethylsilylation (TMS) is the most commonly used silylation and is applicable to most compounds with active hydrogen.
Silylation is easy in the order of alcohol > phenol > carboxylic acid > amine > amide, in the order of primary > secondary > tertiary for alcohol, and primary > secondary for amine.

Product code Product name CAS RN® Pkg. size Example
130-17881 N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) 24589-78-4 5 mL 00987_img02.png
138-17882 25 mL


Silylation is a derivatization that reacts with hydroxy groups, mercapto groups, and amino groups to change poorly volatile substances to volatile ones and is used to inhibit tailing.
In GC/MS, moreover, the GC derivatizing reagent provides a mass spectrum that facilitates structural analysis and is often used to improve sensitivity and resolution. It is useful for derivatization of amides, nitrosamines, sugars, and steroids.
In addition, silylated derivatives are effective for most detection systems.

Product code Product name CAS RN® Pkg. size Example
025-18281 N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoromethyl acetamide
77377-52-7 5 mL 00987_img05.png


This reagent introduces acyl groups into functional groups (hydroxy-, mercapto-, and amino groups) with active hydrogen to convert them into esters, thioesters, and amides. It weakens the polarity of functional groups and improves separation. It converts them to volatile compounds. Acyl groups containing halogen improve detection sensitivity in ECD.

Product code Product name CAS RN® Pkg. size Example
169-26301 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzoic anhydride 15989-99-8 1 g 00987_img09.png


Since esterification of carboxylic acid increases volatility and reduces polarity, GC analysis can be performed under mild conditions, and improvement of separation can be expected.
This reagent acts as an esterifying agent against aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids to easily form alkyl esters.

Product code Product name CAS RN® Pkg. size Example
139-18071 O-methylhydroxylammonium chloride 593-56-6 5 g 00987_img12.png

Other Derivatization

Ferroceneboronic acid is a useful derivatizing reagent, especially for GC-MS analysis. Alkylboronic acids react with difunctional compounds to form cyclic boronate and is used for GC analysis and GC-MS analysis.

Product code Product name CAS RN® Pkg. size Example
066-06223 ferroceneboronic acid 12152-94-2 1 g 00987_img12.png

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Silylation Reagents

Acylation Reagent

Esterification Reagent

Other Derivatization Reagent

Author: Y. Higai

For research use or further manufacturing use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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